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How to Patch/Update RHEL 7 without internet connection ?

Linux is not a windows operating system to install the security patches  and other bug fix patches for every week. At the same time , it’s not like an Unix  operating system where you no need to patch it for years. You should plan to patch the Redhat Linux yearly twice to eliminate the security holes and bug fixes. Redhat recommends to connect the systems to their repository to update the system without much pain. But  customers don’t want to keep the systems in direct internet facing for any reason. Some of the customers will use internet proxy service to get the systems connected with Redhat repository and some of them are rich to afford Redhat satellite server  facility. What about the companies who are concerned about security and cost ? Redhat provides the options of those people to update the system using offline method.

This article is going to demonstrate the offline patching method for RHEL 7. Redhat will automatically upgrade to the minor version.

Operating System: RHEL 7.0

 

Full OS update:(Package update , kernel update and security update)

Note: In this method, whole operating system will be upgraded to the latest minor versions. In this case, system will upgrade to RHEL 7.2.
1. You must have valid redhat subscription to download the latest DVD from Redhat.

2.Download the latest Redhat Enterprise Linux Server 7.x (RHEL 7.x Binary DVD) ISO from Redhat portal.

3.Copy the RHEL 7.x Binary ISO to the system which you want to update(patch)  it.

4. Mount the ISO .

[root@UA-HA ~]# mkdir /repo
[root@UA-HA ~]# mount -o loop rhel-server-7.2-x86_64-dvd.iso /repo
[root@UA-HA ~]# ls -lrt /repo
total 872
-r--r--r--.  1 root root  18092 Mar  6  2012 GPL
-r--r--r--.  1 root root   8266 Apr  4  2014 EULA
-r--r--r--.  1 root root   3211 Oct 23 09:25 RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release
-r--r--r--.  1 root root   3375 Oct 23 09:25 RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-beta
-r--r--r--.  1 root root    114 Oct 30 10:54 media.repo
-r--r--r--.  1 root root   1568 Oct 30 11:03 TRANS.TBL
dr-xr-xr-x.  2 root root   4096 Oct 30 11:03 repodata
dr-xr-xr-x. 24 root root   6144 Oct 30 11:03 release-notes
dr-xr-xr-x.  2 root root 835584 Oct 30 11:03 Packages
dr-xr-xr-x.  2 root root   2048 Oct 30 11:03 LiveOS
dr-xr-xr-x.  2 root root   2048 Oct 30 11:03 isolinux
dr-xr-xr-x.  3 root root   2048 Oct 30 11:03 images
dr-xr-xr-x.  3 root root   2048 Oct 30 11:03 EFI
dr-xr-xr-x.  4 root root   2048 Oct 30 11:03 addons
[root@UA-HA ~]#

 

5. Check the current version of Redhat and kernel version.

[root@UA-HA ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 7.0 (Maipo)
[root@UA-HA ~]# uname -mrs
Linux 3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64 x86_64
[root@UA-HA ~]#

 

6.Remove the existing yum repository. (Re-configure it later if you need those)

 

7.Create the new repo file in “/etc/yum.repos.d/”

[root@UA-HA yum.repos.d]# cat /etc/yum.repos.d/ua.repo
[repo]
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
baseurl=file:///repo
name=repo-update
[root@UA-HA yum.repos.d]#

 

8.List the newly created repo.

[root@UA-HA yum.repos.d]# yum repolist
Loaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
repo id                                                                       repo name                                                                        status
repo                                                                          repo-update                                                                        4,305
repolist: 4,305
[root@UA-HA yum.repos.d]# cd
[root@UA-HA ~]#

 

9. Clean the cache,dbcache, expire-cache, headers and metadata. Perform the repo metadata clean up.

[root@UA-HA ~]# yum clean all
Loaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, search-disabled-repos, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Cleaning repos: repo-update
Cleaning up everything
[root@UA-HA ~]#

 

10. Update the system using “yum update” command.

[root@UA-HA ~]# yum update -y
Loaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package ModemManager-glib.x86_64 0:1.1.0-6.git20130913.el7 will be updated
---> Package ModemManager-glib.x86_64 0:1.1.0-8.git20130913.el7 will be an update
---> Package NetworkManager.x86_64 1:0.9.9.1-13.git20140326.4dba720.el7 will be obsoleted
---> Package NetworkManager.x86_64 1:1.0.6-27.el7 will be obsoleting
--> Processing Dependency: NetworkManager-libnm(x86-64) = 1:1.0.6-27.el7 for package: 1:NetworkManager-1.0.6-27.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libnm.so.0(libnm_1_0_0)(64bit) for package: 1:NetworkManager-1.0.6-27.el7.x86_64
^C[root@UA-HA ~]#

 

11. Reboot the system using init 6.

 

12. Login to the system and check the kernel version.

[root@UA-HA ~]# uname -mrs
Linux 3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64 x86_64
[root@UA-HA ~]#

 

13. Check the /etc/redhat-release file.

[root@UA-HA ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 7.2 (Maipo)
[root@UA-HA ~]#

 

We can see that system has been updated successfully.

 

System Packages Bug fix, Security updates  & Enhancement Updates Only: (No Kernel Update)

Some of the customers would like to stay with same kernel but would like to update the bug fixes and security updates. In that case, you can simply exclude the kernel.

There are two ways to exclude the kernel update.
Method :1
Update the /etc/yum.conf to exclude the kernel update permanently.

[root@UA-HA ~]# cat /etc/yum.conf |grep -i exclude
#Exclude kernel update
exclude=kernel*
[root@UA-HA ~]#

 

Run yum update command to update the system.

[root@UA-HA ~]# yum update -y

 

Method:2

While updating the system , you can just use the exclude option.

[root@UA-HA ~]# yum update --exclude=kernel*
Loaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package ModemManager-glib.x86_64 0:1.1.0-6.git20130913.el7 will be updated
---> Package ModemManager-glib.x86_64 0:1.1.0-8.git20130913.el7 will be an update
---> Package NetworkManager.x86_64 1:0.9.9.1-13.git20140326.4dba720.el7 will be obsoleted
---> Package NetworkManager.x86_64 1:1.0.6-27.el7 will be obsoleting

 

Only Kernel Update:

1. List the available kernel updates .

[root@UA-HA yum.repos.d]# yum list updates 'kernel*'
Loaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Updated Packages
kernel.x86_64                                                                     3.10.0-327.el7                                                          repo-update
kernel-tools.x86_64                                                               3.10.0-327.el7                                                          repo-update
kernel-tools-libs.x86_64                                                          3.10.0-327.el7                                                          repo-update
[root@UA-HA yum.repos.d]#

 

2. Check the currently installed kernel.

[root@UA-HA yum.repos.d]# rpm -q kernel
kernel-3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64
[root@UA-HA yum.repos.d]# yum list installed 'kernel*'
Loaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Installed Packages
kernel.x86_64 3.10.0-123.el7 @anaconda/7.0
kernel-tools.x86_64 3.10.0-123.el7 @anaconda/7.0
kernel-tools-libs.x86_64 3.10.0-123.el7 @anaconda/7.0
[root@UA-HA yum.repos.d]#

 

3. Update only the system kernel.

[root@UA-HA ~]# yum update 'kernel*'
Loaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager
This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package kernel.x86_64 0:3.10.0-327.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: dracut >= 033-283 for package: kernel-3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: linux-firmware >= 20150904-43 for package: kernel-3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64
---> Package kernel-tools.x86_64 0:3.10.0-123.el7 will be updated
---> Package kernel-tools.x86_64 0:3.10.0-327.el7 will be an update
---> Package kernel-tools-libs.x86_64 0:3.10.0-123.el7 will be updated
---> Package kernel-tools-libs.x86_64 0:3.10.0-327.el7 will be an update
--> Running transaction check
---> Package dracut.x86_64 0:033-161.el7 will be updated
--> Processing Dependency: dracut = 033-161.el7 for package: dracut-network-033-161.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: dracut = 033-161.el7 for package: dracut-config-rescue-033-161.el7.x86_64
---> Package dracut.x86_64 0:033-359.el7 will be an update
--> Processing Dependency: systemd >= 219 for package: dracut-033-359.el7.x86_64
---> Package libertas-sd8686-firmware.noarch 0:20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7 will be obsoleted
---> Package libertas-sd8787-firmware.noarch 0:20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7 will be obsoleted
---> Package libertas-usb8388-firmware.noarch 2:20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7 will be obsoleted
---> Package linux-firmware.noarch 0:20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7 will be updated
---> Package linux-firmware.noarch 0:20150904-43.git6ebf5d5.el7 will be obsoleting
--> Running transaction check
---> Package dracut-config-rescue.x86_64 0:033-161.el7 will be updated
---> Package dracut-config-rescue.x86_64 0:033-359.el7 will be an update
---> Package dracut-network.x86_64 0:033-161.el7 will be updated
---> Package dracut-network.x86_64 0:033-359.el7 will be an update
---> Package systemd.x86_64 0:208-11.el7 will be updated
--> Processing Dependency: systemd = 208-11.el7 for package: libgudev1-208-11.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: systemd = 208-11.el7 for package: systemd-python-208-11.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: systemd = 208-11.el7 for package: systemd-sysv-208-11.el7.x86_64
---> Package systemd.x86_64 0:219-19.el7 will be an update
--> Processing Dependency: systemd-libs = 219-19.el7 for package: systemd-219-19.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: kmod >= 18-4 for package: systemd-219-19.el7.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package kmod.x86_64 0:14-9.el7 will be updated
---> Package kmod.x86_64 0:20-5.el7 will be an update
---> Package libgudev1.x86_64 0:208-11.el7 will be updated
---> Package libgudev1.x86_64 0:219-19.el7 will be an update
---> Package systemd-libs.x86_64 0:208-11.el7 will be updated
---> Package systemd-libs.x86_64 0:219-19.el7 will be an update
---> Package systemd-python.x86_64 0:208-11.el7 will be updated
---> Package systemd-python.x86_64 0:219-19.el7 will be an update
---> Package systemd-sysv.x86_64 0:208-11.el7 will be updated
---> Package systemd-sysv.x86_64 0:219-19.el7 will be an update
--> Processing Conflict: systemd-219-19.el7.x86_64 conflicts initscripts < 9.49.28-1 --> Restarting Dependency Resolution with new changes.
--> Running transaction check
---> Package initscripts.x86_64 0:9.49.17-1.el7 will be updated
---> Package initscripts.x86_64 0:9.49.30-1.el7 will be an update
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=================================================================================================================
 Package         Arch                         Version          Repository                         Size
=================================================================================================================
Installing:
 kernel                                     x86_64                       3.10.0-327.el7                                      repo-update                        33 M
 linux-firmware                             noarch                       20150904-43.git6ebf5d5.el7                          repo-update                        24 M
     replacing  libertas-sd8686-firmware.noarch 20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7
     replacing  libertas-sd8787-firmware.noarch 20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7
     replacing  libertas-usb8388-firmware.noarch 2:20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7
Updating:
 initscripts                                x86_64                       9.49.30-1.el7                                       repo-update                       429 k
 kernel-tools                               x86_64                       3.10.0-327.el7                                      repo-update                       2.4 M
 kernel-tools-libs                          x86_64                       3.10.0-327.el7                                      repo-update                       2.3 M
Updating for dependencies:
 dracut                                     x86_64                       033-359.el7                                         repo-update                       311 k
 dracut-config-rescue                       x86_64                       033-359.el7                                         repo-update                        49 k
 dracut-network                             x86_64                       033-359.el7                                         repo-update                        90 k
 kmod                                       x86_64                       20-5.el7                                            repo-update                       114 k
 libgudev1                                  x86_64                       219-19.el7                                          repo-update                        64 k
 systemd                                    x86_64                       219-19.el7                                          repo-update                       5.1 M
 systemd-libs                               x86_64                       219-19.el7                                          repo-update                       356 k
 systemd-python                             x86_64                       219-19.el7                                          repo-update                        97 k
 systemd-sysv                               x86_64                       219-19.el7                                          repo-update                        52 k

Transaction Summary
==================================================================================================================
Install  2 Packages
Upgrade  3 Packages (+9 Dependent packages)

Total download size: 68 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                                                                                                 86 MB/s |  68 MB  00:00:00
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
Warning: RPMDB altered outside of yum.
  Updating   : systemd-libs-219-19.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                   1/30
  Updating   : systemd-219-19.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                        2/30
  Updating   : dracut-033-359.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                        3/30
  Updating   : kmod-20-5.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                             4/30
  Updating   : initscripts-9.49.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                 5/30
  Updating   : kernel-tools-libs-3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64                                                                                                          6/30
  Installing : linux-firmware-20150904-43.git6ebf5d5.el7.noarch                                                                                                 7/30
  Installing : kernel-3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                     8/30
  Updating   : kernel-tools-3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64                                                                                                               9/30
  Updating   : dracut-config-rescue-033-359.el7.x86_64                                                                                                         10/30
  Updating   : dracut-network-033-359.el7.x86_64                                                                                                               11/30
  Updating   : systemd-sysv-219-19.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                  12/30
  Updating   : systemd-python-219-19.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                13/30
  Updating   : libgudev1-219-19.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                     14/30
  Cleanup    : systemd-sysv-208-11.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                  15/30
  Cleanup    : dracut-network-033-161.el7.x86_64                                                                                                               16/30
  Cleanup    : dracut-config-rescue-033-161.el7.x86_64                                                                                                         17/30
  Erasing    : libertas-sd8787-firmware-20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7.noarch                                                                                     18/30
  Erasing    : libertas-sd8686-firmware-20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7.noarch                                                                                     19/30
  Erasing    : 2:libertas-usb8388-firmware-20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7.noarch                                                                                  20/30
  Cleanup    : linux-firmware-20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7.noarch                                                                                               21/30
  Cleanup    : dracut-033-161.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                       22/30
  Cleanup    : systemd-python-208-11.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                23/30
  Cleanup    : initscripts-9.49.17-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                24/30
  Cleanup    : libgudev1-208-11.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                     25/30
  Cleanup    : systemd-208-11.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                       26/30
  Cleanup    : kernel-tools-3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64                                                                                                              27/30
  Cleanup    : kernel-tools-libs-3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64                                                                                                         28/30
  Cleanup    : kmod-14-9.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                            29/30
  Cleanup    : systemd-libs-208-11.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                  30/30
  Verifying  : dracut-config-rescue-033-359.el7.x86_64                                                                                                          1/30
  Verifying  : linux-firmware-20150904-43.git6ebf5d5.el7.noarch                                                                                                 2/30
  Verifying  : dracut-network-033-359.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                3/30
  Verifying  : kernel-tools-3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64                                                                                                               4/30
  Verifying  : kmod-20-5.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                             5/30
  Verifying  : systemd-sysv-219-19.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                   6/30
  Verifying  : libgudev1-219-19.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                      7/30
  Verifying  : systemd-219-19.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                        8/30
  Verifying  : kernel-3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                     9/30
  Verifying  : dracut-033-359.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                       10/30
  Verifying  : systemd-libs-219-19.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                  11/30
  Verifying  : kernel-tools-libs-3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64                                                                                                         12/30
  Verifying  : initscripts-9.49.30-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                13/30
  Verifying  : systemd-python-219-19.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                14/30
  Verifying  : kernel-tools-3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64                                                                                                              15/30
  Verifying  : kmod-14-9.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                            16/30
  Verifying  : dracut-config-rescue-033-161.el7.x86_64                                                                                                         17/30
  Verifying  : systemd-sysv-208-11.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                  18/30
  Verifying  : systemd-python-208-11.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                19/30
  Verifying  : libertas-sd8787-firmware-20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7.noarch                                                                                     20/30
  Verifying  : 2:libertas-usb8388-firmware-20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7.noarch                                                                                  21/30
  Verifying  : dracut-033-161.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                       22/30
  Verifying  : initscripts-9.49.17-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                23/30
  Verifying  : systemd-libs-208-11.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                  24/30
  Verifying  : systemd-208-11.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                       25/30
  Verifying  : dracut-network-033-161.el7.x86_64                                                                                                               26/30
  Verifying  : libertas-sd8686-firmware-20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7.noarch                                                                                     27/30
  Verifying  : libgudev1-208-11.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                     28/30
  Verifying  : linux-firmware-20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7.noarch                                                                                               29/30
  Verifying  : kernel-tools-libs-3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64                                                                                                         30/30

Installed:
  kernel.x86_64 0:3.10.0-327.el7                                          linux-firmware.noarch 0:20150904-43.git6ebf5d5.el7

Updated:
  initscripts.x86_64 0:9.49.30-1.el7                 kernel-tools.x86_64 0:3.10.0-327.el7                 kernel-tools-libs.x86_64 0:3.10.0-327.el7

Dependency Updated:
  dracut.x86_64 0:033-359.el7          dracut-config-rescue.x86_64 0:033-359.el7     dracut-network.x86_64 0:033-359.el7     kmod.x86_64 0:20-5.el7
  libgudev1.x86_64 0:219-19.el7        systemd.x86_64 0:219-19.el7                   systemd-libs.x86_64 0:219-19.el7        systemd-python.x86_64 0:219-19.el7
  systemd-sysv.x86_64 0:219-19.el7

Replaced:
  libertas-sd8686-firmware.noarch 0:20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7                     libertas-sd8787-firmware.noarch 0:20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7
  libertas-usb8388-firmware.noarch 2:20140213-0.3.git4164c23.el7

Complete!
[root@UA-HA ~]#

 

4. Reboot the system.

In grub , you can see that system is booting in new kernel.

GRUB Menu - RHEL 7
GRUB Menu – RHEL 7

 

5. Login to the system again and check the kernel version.

[root@UA-HA ~]# uname -mrs
Linux 3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64 x86_64
[root@UA-HA ~]#

We can see that system kernel has been upgraded to latest version.

 

Install Only the Security updates: (No update for kernel & packages)

Use the following command to update only the security updates.

# yum -y update --security

Refer the Redhat support article for more information.

 

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